Журнал научных публикаций
«Наука через призму времени»
Декабрь, 2018 / Международный научный журнал
«Наука через призму времени» №12 (21) 2018
Автор: Васильчикова Анна Владимировна, студент
Рубрика: Экономические науки
Название статьи: Non-profit organization as a category of political science
Дата публикации: 20.11.2018
NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATION AS A CATEGORY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
A. V. Vasilchikova
student 4 years eg. "Economy"
Klishina Y.E., candidate of Economic Sciences,
Associate Professor of the Department of Finance, Credit and Insurance
State Agrarian University
Annotation. The article is devoted to the theoretical and methodological study of non-profit organizations. The author proposes to distinguish between the concepts of "non-governmental organization" and "non-profit organization" (NPO). The article outlines the main distinguishing features of NGOs. Much attention is paid to the typology of organizations. The author gave an exhaustive scientific analysis of the forms of activity of NGOs.
Keywords: non-governmental organization, non-profit organization, non-governmental organization, civil society, national (public) diplomacy.
НЕКОММЕРЧЕСКАЯ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ КАК КАТЕГОРИЯ ПОЛИТИЧЕСКОЙ НАУКИ
Васильчикова Анна Владимировна
студент 4 курса учетно-финансового факультета
Научный руководитель: Капустина Е. И.
к.э.н., доцент кафедры «Экономической безопасности, статистики и эконометрики»
ФГБОУ ВО «Ставропольский государственный аграрный университет», г. Ставрополь
Аннотация. Статья посвящена теоретико-методологическому изучению деятельности некоммерческих организаций. Автор предлагает провести различие между понятиями "общественная организация" и "некоммерческая организация" (НКО). В статье обозначены основные отличительные черты НПО. Большое внимание уделяется типологии организаций. Автор дал исчерпывающий научный анализ форм деятельности общественных организаций.
Ключевые слова: неправительственная организация, некоммерческая организация, неправительственная организация, Гражданское общество, Национальная (общественная) дипломатия.
One of the priorities of the Concept of the long-term socio-economic development of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020, approved by an order of the Government of the Russian Federation of November 17, 2008, is the development of civil society. In the modern world, non-profit organizations (NPOs) are considered as the organizational basis of civil society.
The study of non-profit organizations today attracts the attention of political scientists, sociologists, economists, philosophers and other scientists. The importance of studying non-profit organizations in Russia is due to the role they play in society. The third (non-profit) sector is called upon to tackle a number of vital tasks for the real support of millions of people and the implementation of many socially useful initiatives and projects.
Voluntary associations of citizens replaced Russia, which are under the directive care of state bodies, mostly politicized and ideologized Soviet public organizations. Out of 221073 registered NPOs for 2013, 192956 organizations could be attributed to the “third sector” (this number did not include political parties, state corporations, state-public associations, associations of peasant farms, economic development associations, horticultural, gardening, dacha and other partnerships, councils of municipalities, HOA, CCI, notarial chambers, institutions). The number of people employed in the “third sector” was 1.1% of the economically active population . For comparison: in the countries of Western Europe, up to 10% of the economically active population is involved in the activities of the third sector [2, p. five].
In November 2012, the “law on foreign agents” came into force in Russia. “Foreign agents” are recognized NPOs that receive property (including cash) from foreign sources and are engaged in political activities in the territory of the Russian Federation. To date, the Perm-36 Museum of Political Repression, the Memorial Human Rights Center, the Agora Human Rights Organization, the Golos Association, the Committee of Soldiers' Mothers, etc. have been listed as NGOs acting as “foreign agents”.
NGOs also participate in international affairs. They operate in the following areas:
- collect, process and disseminate information on international issues requiring public attention;
- initiate specific approaches to their solution and encourage governments to conclude relevant agreements;
- monitor the activities of governments and intergovernmental structures in various spheres of international life, the fulfillment of obligations by states;
- participate in international and regional expert-political forums and dialogues on topical issues;
- form a positive image of their country abroad, promote its values and lifestyle;
- create non-state channels of support for opposition political forces in another country.
It seems to us that the following mechanisms of the influence of NPOs on the internal and foreign policy of the state can be singled out. First, participate in the discussion of bills. Secondly, participation in the activities of various kinds of public advisory councils at ministries, the involvement of representatives of NGOs in the discussion of issues of formation and implementation of government decisions. In other words, NPOs have the opportunity, to a certain extent, to influence the political decision-making process, to express their opinions on issues of interest to them.
Depending on the type of ownership, organizations are divided into state and non-state. State organizations are organizations that are owned by the state and perform tasks, functions, and powers delegated by the state, whose leaders are appointed or contracted by government bodies. A non-governmental organization is a group of people that has united to achieve common goals, conduct joint work and acts on the principles of self-government. The following signs of non-governmental organizations can be distinguished:
- act on their own behalf, and not on behalf of and on behalf of the state;
- perform their own, corporate tasks and functions, rather than government (although they can contribute to the solution of state problems);
- do not have state authority;
- are not funded by the state, but are carried out through other sources;
- the property of the organization is in non-state (private) property [6, p. 145].
Thus, in Russia the term “non-governmental organizations”, “non-commercial organizations” means only non-governmental non-commercial organizations.
The following features inherent in NPOs can be distinguished: 1) commercial profit is not set as the main goal of the activity; 2) state bodies are not participants or founders of the organization; 3) the organization was created voluntarily at the initiative of the participants (individuals and / or legal entities); 4) self-government is implied on the basis of a jointly defined goal; 5) the organization does not use and does not promote violent methods of activity, i.e. is not terrorist; 6) the organization does not have the goal of achieving power.
International non-profit organizations, in addition to the above signs, must also meet the following conditions:
a) have a consultative status with international intergovernmental organizations (International Association "Knowledge", International Public Organization "World Russian People's Council", International Public Foundation "Russian Peace Foundation", PIR Center);
b) carry out activities in at least several states.
Examples of such organizations are Doctors Without Borders, Greenpeace, Amnesty International, Reporters Without Borders, Human Rights Watch, etc. From domestic it is possible to cite the Federation of Peace and Accord, the International Humanitarian Dimension Foundation.
Regional NGOs operate in a specific geographic region. For example, the Institute of CIS Countries (Institute of Diaspora and Integration) has branches in Yerevan (Armenia) and Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan).
Finally, national NGOs operate in one country. Examples include the All-Russian public organizations “Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs” and “All-Russian Council of Local Self-Government”.
Thus, it is not entirely correct to use the terms “non-governmental organization” and “non-profit organization” as synonyms. The concept of a non-governmental organization is broader and includes the concept of non-profit organizations.
List of literature:
- Andreeva O.S. Non-governmental organizations (definition of the concept, the essence) // Power. 2009. № 10.
- Report on the state of civil society in the Russian Federation in 2015. M., Public Chamber of the Russian Federation, 2015.
- The Ministry of Justice proposed to prescribe seven forms of political activity of NGOs. [Electronic resource] // Russian newspaper [site]. 01/22/2016. URL: http://www.rg.ru/2016/01/22/proekt-site.html (appeal date: 05/12/2016).